Dyslexia is called difficulty in reading, for its comprehension or its writing. There are hereditary factors that make you more prone to suffer it.
However, there are other factors that may be related to the presence of the disorder, such as problems in the Birth , poor education , emotional problems, etc.
Studies of the neurological field, where they have compared the brain of people with dyslexia and people without dyslexia, have discovered differences in the angular gyrus (cerebral structure located in the parietal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere).
Similar studies have found poor performance in this region cerebral .
Two types of dyslexia are recognized, acquired , which is the one that appears after a brain injury very specific; while dyslexia evolutionary it is the one that occurs in patients who, from always and without apparently having presented an injury, have difficulties to reach achieve an adequate reading skill.
The diagnosis of dyslexia is complex before the beginning of the school stage, at the age of 3 to 5 years it is important to observe how the basic skills necessary to achieve the learning of reading and writing , such as fine coordination, visuo-motor coordination, attention, concentration, language.
Many scientists have proposed that dyslexia is due to a problem in the areas of brain related to language. However, more and more evidence suggests an entirely different explanation; There is physiological evidence that dyslexia is due to a sensory deficit.
Dyslexic people do not manage to decompose words into their basic sounds and have persistent problems with the phonological system of language , for example, they do not distinguish between the sound of B and D.
The role of the sense of sight in dyslexia was also ignored, largely due to the fact that ophthalmologists did not perceive any difference between them. eyes d e good and bad readers.
This changed, with the recent discovery that the visual system of human beings consists of two main channels.
One of these channels, the cellular magnetic system, consists of large cells that perform fast processes. It serves for the perception of movements, for the stereoscopic view, for the perception of depth and low contrasts and for the location of objects in space.
The second channel is the cellular parvo system, which consists of smaller cells that perform slower processes. He specializes in colors, detailed forms, high contrasts and static images.
The new findings could lead to the development of simple tests to identify and make an early diagnosis of dyslexia.
For the development of the treatment it is necessary to increase phonological awareness using oral materials to create rhymes, derive words, divide words into syllables, etc., on the other hand improve the automation of reading mechanics; that is, it is essential that the child reads as much as possible to improve their skills.
The professionals involved in their care must be psychologists specialized in learning disorders , therapists in human communication and occupational therapists.
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