Deep neurostimulation against Parkinson's

Parkinson's disease is degenerative and it affects the movement. Usually theParkinson It occurs in people older than 60 years, although in some cases it can start at younger ages, such as juvenile, which starts at approximately 20 years, and another early, before 40, indicated Lilia Núñez Orozco , teacher of the School of Medicine of the UNAM .

It does not have a known cause, but it occurs because the neurons that are in a brain structure called black substance, which originates dopamine (a neurotransmitter ) that communicates with the fluted , important part for the control of the movement. By decreasing the amount of dopamine the symptom , as rigidity , tremor of rest, slowness of movement and difficulty in maintaining position automatically If the person starts with the first symptoms, the loss of dopamine It is already in an 80% advance phase.

According to the neurologist, the disease Parkinson it has an inexorable progressive natural evolution, until leaving the person bedridden with an important disability, even with the use of medication; However, for some years now, the quality of life of the patients through the deep neurostimulation .

Currently, it is considered that the best surgical option in the treatment of Parkinson is the application of deep neurostimulation . Through a system called stereotaxy , an electrode is placed in a specific region of the brain (which may be the pale balloon or the Luys subthalamic nucleus) and connects with a cable to a power source, similar to the pacemaker that are placed in the heart.

The also head of Neurology Service of the National Medical Center November 20 of the ISSSTE He explained that this system is placed under the skin (so that it is practically imperceptible), and the best time to use this alternative is when the patient no longer has a favorable response to traditional medications to treat this condition; however, a prior evaluation of the neurologist is required to determine whether or not he is a candidate.

In this process, the drugs are suspended until the most acute manifestations of the disease occur, and then the substance is supplied levodopa ; "... if there is a favorable response, it is considered that neurostimulation deep will be a success, "he said.

Treatment

The condition is not cured, but there is the possibility of controlling the symptoms. For this, it is recommended to start treatment with drugs that protect against degeneration at neurons that produce dopamine (selegiline or rasagilina ).

We try to delay the start of levodopa (chemical precursor of dopamine ) as much as possible, since its useful life is around 10 years and then complications occur, such as wide fluctuations of movement, abnormal disabling shaking or lack of response.

Núñez Orozco said that when applied properly, the quality of life is improved and even that the illness is almost not noticed, because the patient can do his normal activities, although with the progression and complications of the treatment, it is necessary to have different alternatives, and this is where the deep neurostimulation .


Video Medicine: Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery to treat Parkinson's Disease at Mount Sinai Hospital (June 2021).