"A student is assaulted or becomes victim when it is exposed, repeatedly and for a time, to negative actions carried out by another student or several of them ", this is how the psychologist defined bullying Dan Olwes , the first student of the subject. Olwes started to investigate school violence in Norway, his native country, in 1973; However, it is from 1982 that he became even more involved as a result of the suicide of three young victims of bullying.
This concept, so in vogue in our day, also refers to a imbalance of forces where an aggressor intimidates a victim through different kinds of unwanted behaviors: from the verbal (such as heavy jokes, insults or slander); the psychological ones, making the victim feel insecure; social, by ignoring, excluding or deliberately leaving someone to ignore, even physicists, through hits , scratches or shoves . Sometimes, it is an individual who does the bullying, but most of the time, it is a group or gang. In bullying the most important thing is not the action itself, but the effects it produces among its victims.
Bullying is a reality within the adolescent world - age in which more insecurities are experienced - that must be eradicated from different fronts (family, school and society). In the case of parents, they must be very aware of certain signs to help detect if your children are victims of bullying . For example:
In case of any sign that suggests that a child is victim of harassment you should talk to the child and try to express how he feels, as well as try to understand why he has been behaving in a certain way.
If it is verified that it is a case of bullying, you should go immediately to the school authorities to try to solve the problem, first with the group teacher Y then with the address ; If you do not have the support of the school to help resolve the conflict, you should seriously consider changing the child from school.
According to Owles, among the factors that can cause school violence are certain types of dysfunctional families. Children who live in a Family nucleus of violence, abandonment or abuse are more likely to repeat these behaviors with other minors they consider weaker. Also, minors who have low self-esteem may feel the need to reaffirm themselves, making others feel less, through insults or abuse. The kind of discipline that promotes the same school can be a factor that favors the cases of bullying. Experts consider that cases of harassment are more likely to occur in schools where there are many students and a poor surveillance .
In Mexico, the Ministry of Public Education has implemented a program of workshops to combat bullying: through puppets, students can express their feelings in situations of bullying. He has also elaborated the guide "To educate and protect", a recommended tool for teachers and principals of public primary and secondary schools so that children and young people who are the target of harassment or assault are treated as "protected witnesses", and encourage the denunciation of their victimizers .
Experts believe that children should not be asked to solve the problem alone, much less with violence. This, far from solving the situation of harassment, can cause more stress in children or adolescents . Above all, an open communication with the children must be maintained to anticipate these situations; if they are made to feel that they can count on their parents, they will have more confidence to share their concerns and problems.